Topic: Understanding the weather report and the future tense in Portuguese
This intermediate episode is an action formula and we will learn how to talk about the weather informally and formally, using the Future verb tense.
In this episode you learn:
How to describe permanent and momentary weather conditions.
How to talk informally about the present weather conditions (Present / Estar+a+infinitive).
How to talk about future weather conditions (Ir+infinitive / Future).
How to ask how the weather is / will be.
To understand a weather forecast.
Listen to the episode
To talk about how the weather is, you can use the verb to be, ser, and you can use the verb to be, estar. Both these verbs mean to be, one is used to talk about permanent characteristics (the verb ser), and the other is used to talk about momentary characteristics (the verb estar).
Let me give you an example on how to use the verb ser when talking about the weather:
O Verão em Portugal é ameno.
The summer in Portugal is mild.
This means the weather in general, not how the weather is today.
And now an example on how to use the verb estar:
O tempo hoje está bom.
The weather today is good.
This is the weather at this precise moment. Tomorrow it might be different.
When talking about general characteristics using other verbs, we also conjugate the verb in the present.
Here is an example:
Chove muito no Outono. (chove, from the verb chover, to rain).
It rains a lot in Autumn.
When talking about how the weather is right now you use the structure:
[estar (conjugated) + a + infinitive]
Here is an example:
Está a chover muito agora.
It's raining a lot now.
Note that these two last examples (chove muito and está a chover) do not have a clear subject in the sentence (the English equivalent uses the pronoun it: It rains, it's raining.)
The verb is conjugated in the third person.
To say how the weather is going to be you can also use a similar structure, with the verb to go
[ir (conjugated) + infinitive]
It's going to rain.
It's going to snow.
Vai estar quente.
It's going to be hot.
So, for everyday colloquial conversations we use the present tense. However if you listen to the weather forecast, which is formal, you will notice that the verb tense used is the futuro imperfeito. This future tense is used for plans and predictions
The conjugation (the verb ending for each personal pronoun) will be the same for all verbs. For regular verbs, the ending is added to the infinitive. For irregular verbs, often the infinitive is adjusted before the endings are added.
Here is the conjugation of the verb estar, to be, in the future:
ele, ela estará
vocês, eles, elas estarão
Here is another one, the verb chover, to rain:
As you see this verb can only be conjugated in the third person singular. The same for similar verbs, like:
nevar, to snow:
trovejar, to thunder:
As with predicting the weather informally, you can also use, in this case, the structure
[ir + infinitive], conjugating the verb in the future tense.
Irá chover. - It will rain.
Irá nevar. - It will snow.
Irá trovejar. - It will thunder.
Watch the video
Now, how to ask how the weather is:
Como está o tempo?
What’s the weather like? (How is the weather?)
Como vai estar o tempo?
What’s the weather going to be like? (How is the weather going to be?)
Como estará o tempo?
What will the weather be like? (How will the weather be?)
Note: this last example, using the future tense, can also express uncertainty about events in the present:
Como estará o tempo no Porto?
What’s the weather like now in Oporto? I wonder...
Finally I invite you to listen to a weather forecast. You can check the translation in the episode related resources.
Hoje teremos uma ligeira melhoria nas condições atmosféricas e uma pequena subida da temperatura.
Today we will have an improvement in the weather conditions and a small rise in temperature.
26 graus de máxima para o Porto com céu pouco nublado.
Oporto will have a maximum of 26 degrees with the sky a little cloudy.
Lisboa hoje terá boas abertas no céu, com uma temperatura máxima de 28 graus.
Lisbon today will have several moments with clear sky, with a maximum temperature of 28 degrees. (aberta = when the clouds part to reveal clear, blue sky).
As cidades do interior, como Beja, terão temperaturas mais altas com 34 graus e céu limpo.
Inland towns, like Beja, will have higher temperatures with 34 degrees and clear skies.
Nos Açores o céu estará pouco nublado em quase todas as ilhas.
In the Azores the sky will be cloudy on almost all of the islands.
Ponta Delgada terá uma temperatura máxima de 24 graus e choverá ligeiramente da parte da manhã.
Ponta Delgada will have a maximum temperature of 24 degrees and it will rain slightly in the morning.
Haverão também poucas nuvens na Madeira onde os termómetros subirão até aos 26 graus.
There will also be a few clouds in Madeira where the thermometers will reach 26 degrees.